I’ve recently been upgrading my tool set to the latest versions of Python, Keras, and Tensorflow, all running on a docker-based GPU-enabled deployment of Jupyter with CUDA 8 installed. In this notebook I walk through a quick test to verify that the GPU is recognized and is working, and define and train a basic CNN for the classic MNIST digit recognition task.

Overview

This entry is pretty self explanatory, pretty much going through the basics of loading modules, checking GPU detection, and model definition.

I found that the following references were helpful to get going:

  • https://elitedatascience.com/keras-tutorial-deep-learning-in-python

    First network I saw and what was implemented

  • https://blog.keras.io/keras-as-a-simplified-interface-to-tensorflow-tutorial.html

    For adapting for TensorFlow (had been Theano) and 2.0 api

  • http://machinelearningmastery.com/handwritten-digit-recognition-using-convolutional-neural-networks-python-keras/

    Very similar network, also comparison to other networks and some nice explanations

In addition to the above, this notebooks makes a few improvements for the latest library versions, and adaptations for Python 3.x.

General Notes

As long as the libraries are installed properly, this notebook should be able to be executed as-is. While the epochs are running it can be instructive to check your GPU status, e.g. using nvidia-smi.

I observed the following output before execution:

$ nvidia-smi
Sat Jun 17 19:05:40 2017
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| NVIDIA-SMI 375.66                 Driver Version: 378.13                    |
|-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
| GPU  Name        Persistence-M| Bus-Id        Disp.A | Volatile Uncorr. ECC |
| Fan  Temp  Perf  Pwr:Usage/Cap|         Memory-Usage | GPU-Util  Compute M. |
|===============================+======================+======================|
|   0  Tesla M40 24GB      Off  | 0000:00:06.0     Off |                    0 |
| N/A   37C    P0    58W / 250W |  21798MiB / 22939MiB |      0%      Default |
+-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Processes:                                                       GPU Memory |
|  GPU       PID  Type  Process name                               Usage      |
|=============================================================================|
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

And this while running:

$ nvidia-smi
Sat Jun 17 19:09:25 2017
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| NVIDIA-SMI 375.66                 Driver Version: 378.13                    |
|-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
| GPU  Name        Persistence-M| Bus-Id        Disp.A | Volatile Uncorr. ECC |
| Fan  Temp  Perf  Pwr:Usage/Cap|         Memory-Usage | GPU-Util  Compute M. |
|===============================+======================+======================|
|   0  Tesla M40 24GB      Off  | 0000:00:06.0     Off |                    0 |
| N/A   39C    P0    74W / 250W |  21915MiB / 22939MiB |     28%      Default |
+-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Processes:                                                       GPU Memory |
|  GPU       PID  Type  Process name                               Usage      |
|=============================================================================|
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Note power increase of 16 W, slight temperature increase (2C), GPU utilization from 0 to 28%.

I was surprised that no processes appeared in the process list, will need to look into that.

Notebook

Full notebook available here

Introduction

Explorations into the newer versions of Keras, TF, and Python 3

Authors

  • Eric Carlson
In [1]:
from datetime import datetime
import configparser
import hashlib
from importlib import reload
import logging
import numpy as np
import os
import pandas as pd
import pathlib as pl
import sys
import yaml

from IPython import display

import etc_utils as eu
In [2]:
importlib.reload(eu)
#%cat etc_utils.py
Out[2]:
<module 'etc_utils' from '/net/home/p2016-090/home/ecarlson/Notebooks/deep-learning/etc_utils.py'>
In [3]:
sys.version
Out[3]:
'3.4.5 | packaged by conda-forge | (default, Sep  8 2016, 14:22:44) \n[GCC 4.8.2 20140120 (Red Hat 4.8.2-15)]'

Configure pandas and matplot lib for nice web printing

In [4]:
pd.options.display.max_rows = 1000
pd.options.display.max_columns = 50
pd.options.display.max_colwidth = 100
In [5]:
%matplotlib inline

Load config files, configure logging

In [6]:
work_desc = "deep_learning_intro"
In [7]:
time_str, path_config, creds = eu.load_config_v2()
print('Time string: {}'.format(time_str))

print('Paths:')
for k, item in path_config.items():
    print('{}: {}'.format(k, item))
Time string: 2017-06-17-18-38
Paths:
results_dir: /net/home/310114316/results/deep_learning
input_dir: /net/home/310114316/data/deep_learning
repo_data_dir: ./
log_dir: /net/home/310114316/logs/deep_learning
In [8]:
logger = logging.getLogger()

eu.configure_logging(logger, work_desc=work_desc, log_directory=path_config['log_dir'], time_str=time_str)
Logging to /net/home/310114316/logs/deep_learning/2017-06-17-18-38_deep_learning_intro.log
In [9]:
[k for k in creds.keys()]
Out[9]:
['mimic3_v1_4', 'postgres', 'mimic2_v2_6']
In [10]:
[k for k in creds['mimic3_v1_4'].keys()]
Out[10]:
['password', 'hostname', 'sa_driver', 'username', 'dbname']

Load Keras and Test GPU

In [11]:
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.python.client import device_lib
In [12]:
def get_available_gpus():
    local_device_protos = device_lib.list_local_devices()
    return [x.name for x in local_device_protos if x.device_type == 'GPU']
In [13]:
get_available_gpus()
Out[13]:
['/gpu:0']
In [14]:
device_lib.list_local_devices()
Out[14]:
[name: "/cpu:0"
 device_type: "CPU"
 memory_limit: 268435456
 locality {
 }
 incarnation: 17522632163924398466, name: "/gpu:0"
 device_type: "GPU"
 memory_limit: 986775552
 locality {
   bus_id: 1
 }
 incarnation: 3114684901701903426
 physical_device_desc: "device: 0, name: Tesla M40 24GB, pci bus id: 0000:00:06.0"]
In [15]:
import keras
Using TensorFlow backend.
In [16]:
keras.__version__
Out[16]:
'2.0.4'
In [17]:
tf.__version__
Out[17]:
'1.1.0'
In [18]:
import keras.applications as kapps
from keras.applications import imagenet_utils as iu

Start analysis

In [79]:
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense, Dropout, Activation, Flatten
from keras.layers import MaxPooling2D, Conv2D
from keras.layers import InputLayer
In [136]:
# fix random seed for reproducibility
seed = 7
np.random.seed(seed)
In [137]:
from keras.datasets import mnist
 
# Load pre-shuffled MNIST data into train and test sets
(X_train, y_train), (X_test, y_test) = mnist.load_data()
In [138]:
print(X_train.shape)
(60000, 28, 28)
In [139]:
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
plt.imshow(X_train[0])
Out[139]:
<matplotlib.image.AxesImage at 0x7f1701768048>
In [140]:
X_train = X_train.reshape(X_train.shape[0], 1, 28, 28)
X_test = X_test.reshape(X_test.shape[0], 1, 28, 28)
In [141]:
print(X_train.shape)
(60000, 1, 28, 28)
In [142]:
X_train = X_train.astype('float32')
X_test = X_test.astype('float32')
X_train /= 255
X_test /= 255
In [143]:
print(y_train.shape)
(60000,)
In [144]:
print(y_train[:10])
[5 0 4 1 9 2 1 3 1 4]
In [145]:
from keras.utils import np_utils
# Convert 1-dimensional class arrays to 10-dimensional class matrices
Y_train = np_utils.to_categorical(y_train, 10)
Y_test = np_utils.to_categorical(y_test, 10)
In [146]:
print(Y_train.shape)
(60000, 10)
In [147]:
print(Y_train[:5,:10])
[[ 0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  1.  0.  0.  0.  0.]
 [ 1.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.]
 [ 0.  0.  0.  0.  1.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.]
 [ 0.  1.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.]
 [ 0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  0.  1.]]
In [148]:
import tensorflow as tf
sess = tf.Session()

from keras import backend as K
K.set_session(sess)
In [149]:
K.image_data_format()
Out[149]:
'channels_first'
In [150]:
K.set_image_dim_ordering('th')
K.image_data_format()
Out[150]:
'channels_first'
In [151]:
model = Sequential()
In [152]:
model.add(InputLayer(input_shape=(1, 28, 28)))
In [153]:
model.add(Conv2D(32, (3, 3), activation='relu'))
In [154]:
print(model.output_shape)
(None, 32, 26, 26)
In [155]:
model.add(Conv2D(32, (3, 3), activation='relu'))
model.add(MaxPooling2D(pool_size=(2,2)))
model.add(Dropout(0.25))
In [156]:
model.add(Flatten())
model.add(Dense(128, activation='relu'))
model.add(Dropout(0.5))
model.add(Dense(10, activation='softmax'))
In [157]:
model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy',
              optimizer='adam',
              metrics=['accuracy'])
In [158]:
with tf.device('/gpu:0'):
    model.fit(X_train, Y_train, 
          batch_size=32, epochs=10, verbose=2)
Epoch 1/10
26s - loss: 0.2202 - acc: 0.9326
Epoch 2/10
25s - loss: 0.0932 - acc: 0.9720
Epoch 3/10
25s - loss: 0.0685 - acc: 0.9789
Epoch 4/10
25s - loss: 0.0551 - acc: 0.9829
Epoch 5/10
25s - loss: 0.0494 - acc: 0.9847
Epoch 6/10
25s - loss: 0.0442 - acc: 0.9864
Epoch 7/10
25s - loss: 0.0366 - acc: 0.9886
Epoch 8/10
25s - loss: 0.0333 - acc: 0.9893
Epoch 9/10
25s - loss: 0.0328 - acc: 0.9894
Epoch 10/10
25s - loss: 0.0294 - acc: 0.9909
In [159]:
model.summary()
_________________________________________________________________
Layer (type)                 Output Shape              Param #   
=================================================================
input_12 (InputLayer)        (None, 1, 28, 28)         0         
_________________________________________________________________
conv2d_17 (Conv2D)           (None, 32, 26, 26)        320       
_________________________________________________________________
conv2d_18 (Conv2D)           (None, 32, 24, 24)        9248      
_________________________________________________________________
max_pooling2d_3 (MaxPooling2 (None, 32, 12, 12)        0         
_________________________________________________________________
dropout_4 (Dropout)          (None, 32, 12, 12)        0         
_________________________________________________________________
flatten_2 (Flatten)          (None, 4608)              0         
_________________________________________________________________
dense_3 (Dense)              (None, 128)               589952    
_________________________________________________________________
dropout_5 (Dropout)          (None, 128)               0         
_________________________________________________________________
dense_4 (Dense)              (None, 10)                1290      
=================================================================
Total params: 600,810
Trainable params: 600,810
Non-trainable params: 0
_________________________________________________________________
In [160]:
score = model.evaluate(X_test, Y_test, verbose=0)
In [161]:
print("Baseline Error: %.2f%%" % (100-score[1]*100))
Baseline Error: 0.83%


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